What are STDs?
The term sexually transmitted diseases or simply STDs includes a variety of clinical syndromes and infections which are caused by pathogens can be acquired and transmitted normally through sexual intercourse.
This article discusses about the causes, symptoms and prevention of STDs.
Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STDs):
Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STDs), which is also known as venereal diseases, normally caused by germs that live on the skin or in body fluids including semen, vaginal fluid, or blood. Hence, if an infected person having sex with other normal person, the germs are passed from the infected person to the normal person. These germs can enter into the body by any means such as through the vagina, mouth, anus, and open sores or cuts.
Remember, STDs-are not spread by casual contact, such as by sitting on toilet seats or by being in swimming pools.
Causes of STDs:
Normally, the major reason of STDs-is sexual relationship of any sort including anal sex, vaginal sex, or even oral sex.
However, some other reasons of STDs are:
- Sharing contaminated needles used to inject drugs
- Using contaminated body piercing and tattooing equipment
- Pregnant woman to her baby
- It can also transmit through some other infections.
Signs and Symptoms of STDs:
There is no fix time for the appearance of sign or symptoms of STDs-(after the infection); it may appear in a few days, may be after a week or even month. But remember, if there is no sign, it does not mean that that infected person cannot transmit; once infected means he/she is capable to transmit further to other person.
Following are the common, but important symptoms of STDs:
- Burning with urination
- Genital ulcers such as open sores or blisters
- Discharge from the penis or vagina
- Abdominal pain, most often in women
- Skin rash
Types of STDs:
There are many types of STDs; however, the common types are:
- Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)
- Human Papilloma Virus (HPV or genital warts)
- Hepatitis (HBV)
Diagnosis of STDs:
As the symptoms or signs are not much perceptible; therefore, if you are sexual active, irrespective of sexual intercourse, you need to have medical check regularly. Since, STDs-is normally (in most of the cases) gets treated; hence, on time diagnosis can provide proper treatment.
Some STDs-may be diagnosed only through a physical examination or through microscopic examination of a sore or fluid swabbed from the penis, vagina, or anus. However, if not then the fluid (taken from penis or vagina) can also be cultured over a few days to check whether infectious bacteria or yeast can be detected. Besides, Blood tests are taken to detect infections including hepatitis A, B, and C or HIV/AIDS.
Treatment and Drugs of STDs:
STDs are curable by the medicines. However, depending upon the degree of infection, doctor prescribes medicines. In the beginning stage, doctor normally provides antibiotics, but if the problem is deeper then, along with oral medication, some drugs also injected into the body.
Prevention from STDs:
Following are the significant preventive measures, which practice will protect you from STDs:
- Don’t have sex: It is the best solution not to have sex, but hardly it is possible especially for the people below 50, so follow the following measures.
- Be faithful: If you know, you have-STDs or any such kind of problem, be honest with your sex partner.
- Sex only with trustworthy: Don’t sex with any one, at least whom you don’t know at all.
- Use condoms: Though condoms are not 100 per cent safe; however, take precaution especially when you are having sex with the person whom you don’t know.
- Don’t mix drugs and alcohol with sex: Drugs and alcohol affect the ability to make smart decision; so don’t mix both i.e. sex and alcohol.
- Have a few sex partners: Try to have limited sex partners.
- Medical checkup or Report of a new sex partner: If possible know the medical history of your sex partner or better both of you get checked up before having sex.
- Don’t use IV street drugs and never share needles.
- Pre-exposure vaccination to the persons who are at risk for vaccine preventable-STDs.